Grade retention research paper

Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. After all, why should repeating the same experience produce a different result?

In those studies that did show a difference, the results favored the promoted students, especially on measures of achievement.

research on retention in kindergarten

It's tricky in most cases to determine whether the students in the study would have fared better if they had been promoted instead of retained.

Although solid statistics are hard to come by, estimates of the number of students retained at least once in their school career range from 10 to 20 percent.

Grade retention research paper

Some research points to the benefits of grade retention for student achievement e. As with any large body of research, the studies ask different questions, look at different consequences, and are fraught with methodological problems. In framing the issues and drawing conclusions, she will draw on articles from peer-reviewed journals and reports from research institutions as well as her own 35 years of experience studying schools and districts. Understanding why a particular student has fallen behind points to the best course of action. Throughout the research on the impact of school achievement on the affective components of learning e. What's the Idea? The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: 1 students with past and recent retention; 2 students with past but no recent retention; 3 students with no past but recent retention; 4 students with no past or recent retention. They speculated that the 6th graders had more opportunities to catch up. Those in favor believe that low-performing students stand to benefit from the opportunity for more instruction and services. For example it does not explain why some low-achieving students get retained while similarly low-achieving classmates get promoted Huang, In motivation related variables, such as the importance attributed to academic competencies, task orientation and avoidance orientation, students at risk of retention presented low scores, closer to those exhibited by underachievers. Overall, these findings highlight the stressful nature of retention and suggest that the positive short-term effects of being retained observed in some cases, tend to decrease or even disappear in the long-term. Surely a student who could not succeed in 2nd grade will have an even harder time succeeding in 3rd grade. Studies with the strongest research methods compare students who were retained with similar students who were not retained. Such policies aim to provide incentives for educators and parents to help low-performing students improve their skills before third grade.

Being retained in third grade led students to take fewer remedial courses in high school and improved their grade point averages. On one hand, some studies report the beneficial or neutral effects of retention.

The effect of grade retention on high school completion Working Paper No. The argument for retention is that students who have not met grade-level criteria will fall further and further behind as they move through the grades.

First grade retention

What's the Research? These findings are only one component of a comprehensive analysis of the merits of test-based promotion policies, West adds. In framing the issues and drawing conclusions, she will draw on articles from peer-reviewed journals and reports from research institutions as well as her own 35 years of experience studying schools and districts. Review of Educational Research, 54 2 , — For example, the results showed that third grade retention had no effect on the likelihood that a student would enroll in post-secondary education. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. A failing 2nd grader, retention advocates argue, would be better served by repeating 2nd grade than by moving on to 3rd grade. A meta-analysis by Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. Retention can increase the likelihood that a student will drop out of school. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Keywords: retention, self-esteem, self-concept, achievement goals, academic achievement Introduction The organization of the school curriculum in an increasing level of complexity in terms of knowledge learned by students requires that teachers assess whether students are able or not to move to the next grade on an annual basis. In fact, it can lead to better preparation when entering high school. Retained 6th graders had lower achievement growth than similar students who were not retained. Abstract Keeping students back in the same grade — retention — has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. Although retention is usually seen as a consequence of low academic achievement, this is not necessarily the case Shepard and Smith, ; Huang,

The research evidence on the effects of grade retention. The effects of nonpromotion on elementary and junior high school pupils: A meta-analysis. They point to evidence that students who are old for their grade level are more likely to drop out of high school.

Retention can increase the likelihood that a student will drop out of school. What's the Idea?

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The Effects of Grade Retention on High School Outcomes: Evidence from New York City Schools