The Postmodern era corresponds to the age of nuclear and electronic technologies and Consumer Capitalism, where the emphasis is on marketing, selling and consumption rather than production. The new theories of language and discourse led to radical critiques of modern philosophy, attacking its root assumptions.
Both Nietzsche and Heidegger also provided thoroughgoing critiques of modernity that influenced later postmodern theory. The affirmative social discourse Drucker, Etzioni, Ferre, and theorists of the postindustrial society reproduced s optimism and the sense that technology and modernization were making possible the break with an obsolete past.
Post-World War II modernization processes in France produced a sense of rapid change and a feeling that a new society was emerging. In addition, postmodern theory abandons the rational and unified subject postulated by much modern theory in favour of a socially and linguistically decentred and fragmented subject.
They took on an international scope and resonance by the s and have penetrated every academic field, challenging regnant orthodoxies and affirming new postmodern perspectives and positions.
Postmodern theory sociology
Toynbee, Mills, Bell, Baudrillard. As we have noted, this rupture can be interpreted positively as a liberation from old constraining and oppressive conditions Vattimo and as an affirmation of new developments, a moving into new terrains, a forging of new discourses and ideas Foucault b; Deleuze and Guattari and ; Lyotard a. Contemporary world is a simulacrum, where reality has been thus replaced by false images. He describes the new age as being constituted by revolutionary developments in science and technology, by a new imperialism meeting resistance in Third World revolutionary movements, by the transition from individualism to mass society, and by a new outlook on the world and new forms of culture. In the end, Postmodernists are intent on creating and using their own brand of social justice merely for their own political purposes. The individual or subject depicted in these works is often decentred, without a central meaning or goal in life, and dehumanized, often losing individual characteristics and becoming merely the representative of an age or civilization, like Tiresias in The Waste Land. While the political hopes of the day were soon dashed, the apocalyptic impulses of the time were translated into the postmodern theories of a fundamental rupture in history and inauguration of a new era. Through the use of reason and logic , and with the more specialized tools provided by science and technology , human beings are likely to change themselves and their societies for the better. Postmodernism and modern philosophy Postmodernism is largely a reaction against the intellectual assumptions and values of the modern period in the history of Western philosophy roughly, the 17th through the 19th century.
Postmodern literature, as expressed in the writings of Beckett, Robbe GrilletBorgesMarquezNaguib Mahfouz and Angela Carter rests on a recognition of the complex nature of reality and experience, the role of time and memory in human perception, of the self and the world as historical constructions, and the problematic nature of language.
Critical legal studies, then, becomes the means to discover the subjective and biased intent of the law.
based on 69 review